术语 "石材(stone)" 可以指两个不同但相关的概念，这取决于你在讨论 "石材" 或者 "石料"。当将其称为一般材料时, 它包括所有非有机材料，而不是特定的土壤，金属或宝石，如“岩层主要是花岗岩”或“为工坊腾出空间而挖出的石材”。 当提到石料, 即采矿时留下的圆形物体时，它是指运送到某类型工坊的原材料，或可原样用于建造的具体对象，而这个圆形物品既可以是石材（在第一种意义上），也可以是宝石或某种金属的矿石，如“剩下的石材大多是花岗岩和一些黄金”或“挖出的石料必须被搬走，以便为工坊腾出空间”。通常在上下文中很明显，要么是1：一般的非矿石/非宝石物品，要么是2：可被运走的一单位石材/矿石/宝石————只是为了清楚起见。
- Rough gems: rough gems can be cut, then used to encrust objects and create windows.
- Other stone: all other stones. Few of these have a use outside of items and structures (obsidian being a notable exception).
Economic stones are types of stone that can be reserved for a special purpose. For ores, this is smelting, and for fluxes, this is steel production. Bituminous coal and lignite can be reserved for making coke.
Having created loose stone, most of the time you'll want to get rid of it, or at least move it someplace else. See stone management for advice.
If you are having the opposite problem, and find yourself running out of stone, try making stone blocks.
Main layer types
There are four types of stone layers (plus soil, which is not stone). The type of layer is the primary indicator of what kind of ores you are likely to find on the map, as well as a sign of volcanic activity.
Stones forming entire layers
These types of stone occur as entire layers, containing some veins and pockets of other minerals (see below).
- ≈ - 耐熔岩
Stones found on this table will occur as pockets and veins inside their respective stone layers (see above). When your miners newly encounter one of them you will receive an announcement, even for the ones that have no use other than to build constructions of unusual colors. Note that the veins or clusters can spread into other layers, and may cause some layers to contain stones they usually wouldn't. A few of these stones, such as 橄榄岩, have other, more interesting minerals appear inside them.
Non-layer stone formations occur in one of three shapes: large clusters, veins, and small clusters. (See Veins & Clusters for full info.)
|` •||明矾石||All 喷出型火成岩(L), 高岭石(L)||Yes||Yes|
|v •||硬石膏||软石膏(S), 纤维石膏(1), 雪花石膏(1), 透明石膏(1)||Yes||Yes|
|+ •||铝土矿||All 沉积岩(L)||Yes||Yes|
|☼ ☼||烟煤||All 沉积岩(V)|
|` •||硼砂||软石膏(S), 岩盐(L)||Yes|
|% •||硫磺||All 喷出型火成岩(S), 软石膏(S)|
|" •||方解石||石灰岩(S), 大理石(S)||Yes||Yes|
|£ *||辰砂||All 喷出型火成岩(V), 页岩(V), 石英岩(V)|
|£ *||辉钴矿||All Igneous(V), All 变质岩(V)||Yes|
|o •||石墨||片麻岩(S), 石英岩(S), 大理石(S), 片岩(S)|
|# •||软石膏||All 沉积岩(L)|
|" •||角闪石||All 火成岩(S), All 变质岩(S)||Yes|
|░ •||煤玉||All 沉积岩(L)||Yes|
|= •||高岭石||All 沉积岩(L)||Yes||Yes|
|* •||褐煤||All 沉积岩(V)|
|v •||云母||All 变质岩(L), 花岗岩(L)||Yes||Yes|
|% •||微斜长石||All Stone(L)||Yes|
|- •||雌黄||All 喷出型火成岩(S)|
|% •||正长石||All 侵入型火成岩(L), All 变质岩(L)||Yes||Yes|
|% •||石化木||All 沉积岩(S)||Yes||Yes|
|% •||软锰矿||All 火成岩(S)|
|% •||雄黄||All 喷出型火成岩(S)|
|` •||金红石||All 变质岩(S), 花岗岩(S)||Yes||Yes|
|x •||硝石||All 沉积岩(S)|
|% •||辉锑矿||All 喷出型火成岩(S)|
- (L) - occurs in large clusters
- (V) - occurs in veins
- (S) - occurs in small clusters
- (1) - occurs in individual tiles
For those concerned with aesthetics and wanting to know which stones are available in each color.
|Color||Non-economic stones||Economic stones||Ore|
|• White||明矾石, 硼砂, 冰晶石, 白铁矿, 方镁石, 石英岩 (L), 岩盐 (L), 滑石||雪花石膏, 方解石, 白垩岩 (L), 白云石 (L), 石灰岩 (L), 大理石 (L), 纤维石膏, 透明石膏||方铅矿, 角银矿, 天然铝矿, 天然铂矿, 天然银矿|
|• Light Gray||硬石膏, 英安岩 (L), 片麻岩 (L), 花岗岩 (L), 千枚岩 (L), 辉锑矿||辉铋矿|
|• Dark Gray||安山岩 (L), 玄武岩 (L), 铬铁矿, 黏土岩 (L), 闪长岩 (L), 辉长岩 (L), 石墨, 角闪石, 钛铁矿, 煤玉, 云母, 软锰矿, 流纹岩 (L), 页岩 (L), 板岩||烟煤, 褐煤, 黑曜石 (L)||磁铁矿, 闪锌矿, 黝铜矿|
|• Brown||角岩 (L), 砾岩 (L), 泥岩 (L), 布丁岩, 砂岩 (L), 片岩 (L), 粉砂岩 (L)||锡石, 天然铜矿|
|• Yellow||硫磺, 雌黄, 正长石, 硝石, 钾岩||软石膏||褐铁矿, 天然金矿|
|• Dark Red||铝土矿||高岭石||赤铁矿|
|• Red||辰砂, 石化木, 雄黄|
|• Green||橄榄岩, 蛇纹石||孔雀石|
|• Bright Green||硅镁镍矿|
|• Dark Blue||金伯利岩|
|• Purple||沥青铀矿, 金红石|
DF Geology and Geology in Real Life
The geology and stones of Dwarf Fortress are based (to some extent) on real-world geology and mineralogy. To understand the terms used here, you may want to crack open a geology textbook (a high school one should suffice). If you don't happen to have one close by, the Wikipedia articles for geology, mineralogy, or the terms in question might help. Below is a very brief introduction tailored for DF gamers, with links to the relevant game-specific pages.
In geological terminology, a rock or stone is basically a composite of minerals. Minerals, the building blocks of rock, are hard inorganic materials with a definite chemical formula and a certain atomic structure. For example, the mineral quartz is composed of silicon dioxide (SiO₂) arranged in a pyramid structure. Quartz is a component mineral of rocks (stones) such as quartzite (almost entirely made of quartz) or granite (some 20~60% quartz, a bunch more of the mineral "feldspar", plus mica and some others). The distinction between minerals like mica (simple) and rocks like granite (composite) does not matter for Dwarf Fortress; just like in everyday language, they're all just "stones". Besides minerals, some rocks may include organic material; such rocks include bituminous coal (made of dead bog things) or limestone (made of the skeletons of ocean animals).
- Museo de La Plata - Cuarcita.jpg
Quartzite stone, made mostly of quartz mineral.
- Dark Mica from Eastern Ontario.jpg
Mica, a mineral.
- Xenocrinus baeri fossil crinoids in fossiliferous limestone (Whitewater Formation, Upper Ordovician; northeastern Warren County, southwestern Ohio, USA) 2 (15115228788).jpg
Limestone, this one still with skeletons.
The three minerals seen in granite are also among the most common:
- Feldspar, meaning something like "field-stone", is actually a general name for an entire family of minerals, all of them based on aluminum and silicon. Their appearance varies, but they tends toward light greyish colors, and make up a lot of your typical light stone. Feldspar doesn't exist independently in the DF world; but, among the in-game stones, microcline and orthoclase are flavors of feldspar, and countless other DF stones would include feldspar in real life. A stone with a lot of feldspars and silicon is said to be felsic; granite and rhyolite are in-game examples.
- Quartz, meaning "hard", easily makes big showy crystals; it's transparent if pure, but if the SiO₂ is combined with trace amounts of other elements (often metals like iron and manganese), it can get colored pink, purple (amethyst), yellow (citrine), and so on. If bubbly with air, quartz may become milky; if irradiated, it may get smoky.
- Micas, like quartz, have silicon atoms crystalline structures. The difference is that they're organized in sheet-like, gleaming surfaces, held together by weaker bonds of other elements; this makes micas soft and flaky (the word means "grainy"). The color varies. The in-game stone mica is stated to be muscovite, which is a light variety (but the game color is dark gray, like coal; this may be a mistake). Other micas can be dark.
Other minerals that exist independently in DF include green olivine (yes, it's named after olives) and black hornblende, which is similar to dark mica but forms needlelike crystals. Dark minerals like these often include magnesium and iron (Fe); stones rich in them are then termed mafic (in contrast with "felsic"). In-game mafic stones include basalt and gabbro.
On the white side, calcite is a mineral based on calcium, the same stuff as bones. It forms crystals, and occurs in DF as an unremarkable white stone. Calcite is a main component of limestone and chalk—which in turn can become marble; it's often formed from the accumulated remains of ancient marine animals (for a memorable use of chalk stone layers in high fantasy, check out Terry Pratchett's novel The Wee Free Men and its sequels). The most well-known marine mineral is surely table salt, present in DF as rock salt. It's formed when saltwater evaporates; another evaporative mineral, or "evaporite", is gypsum, which, in DF as in real life, can be used to make plaster casts
- Perthitic feldspar Dan Patch SD.jpg
Feldspars, the most common minerals, are often light-colored and "stony".
Mica is a flaky, crumbly and sheet-like mineral. This is the lighter flavor "muscovite", present in DF.
- Mineral Olivino GDFL046.jpg
The dark green mafic mineral olivine is a component of many basalts.
- Cristales cueva de Naica.JPG
A large cluster of gypsum crystals (human for scale).
Rocks can be classified by their creation processes, which makes them settle down in distinct stone layers, and possibly in veins and clusters. DF models this too, so that it's quite relevant information for players; see the links for details.
An ore is a rock with a metal content high enough for it to be a viable source of that metal. Most metals do not occur by themselves in nature, but readily bind with minerals to form stones; e.g. zinc binds with sulfur minerals to form the rock sphalerite. To extract the metal from it, someone has to smelt the stone. A few metals may be found in pure form, like native gold and silver (but in DF, they still require smelting to be shaped into useable bars).
Sphalerite, an ore of zinc.
- Zinc fragment sublimed and 1cm3 cube.jpg
- Zlato 2.jpg
Native gold in rock.
A gem is a mineral (or rock, or rock-like material) with intrinsic economic value for a culture, often because they're beautiful, durable, and/or rare. This depends not just on what the mineral is made of, but also on the internal layout of its atomic structure, which can dramatically alter its appearance and properties; see the article on gems for more.
Rose quartz is made of the same basic quartz as quartzite (above), but its atoms are ordered into neatly arranged pyramid shapes, resulting in a shiny, transparent, faceted material.
|动物||血 • 骨头 • 脑子 • 软骨 • 奶酪 • 几丁质 • 蛋 • 脂肪 • 羽毛 • 毛发（羊毛 • 纱） • 蹄 • 角 • 脓液 • 皮革 • 奶 • 指甲 • 神经组织 • 羊皮纸 • 珍珠 • 鳞片 • 壳 • 丝绸 • 表皮 • 唾沫 • 汗水 • 动物油 • 泪水 • 牙齿 • 蜡|
|植物||纤维（纸 • 纸浆） • 花 • 果实 • 叶子 • 油 • 植物粉（染料 • 面粉） • 种子（压榨饼） • 木材|
|动植物||酒 • 提取物（金霜 • 侏儒枯 • 蜂蜜 • 蜂王浆 • 糖浆 • 毒液） • 肥皂|
|无机||金属 • 石灰乳 • 土壤（粘土 • 沙） • 石材 （灰釉 • 陶器 • 宝石 • 石膏灰泥 • 瓷器 • 石灰 • 石器 • 锡釉）|
|硬编码||琥珀 • 灰烬 • 珊瑚 • 污秽 • 燃料 • 玻璃 • 尘垢 • 冰 • 碱液 • 岩浆 • 泥 • 珍珠灰 • 草碱 • 盐 • 未知物质 • 呕吐物 • 水|